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SAN FRANCISCO Wholesale Miami Heat Hats , Sept. 17 (Xinhua) -- Researchers have found a way to arrest the development of flowers in poplar trees, so as to control the unintentional spread of engineered or non-native tree species.


In their work published this week in Nature Biotechnology, lead author Amy Klocko, postdoctoral researcher in the College of Forestry at Oregon State University (OSU), and her colleagues used a technique known as RNA interference to suppress a gene, called LEAFY Wholesale Memphis Grizzlies Hats , that is known to play a central role in the development of flowers in poplars and many other plants.


The researchers grew trees that LEAFY was still present, but RNA interference was applied to slow down the gene's activity in experimental field trials authorized by the U.S. Department of Agriculture in the Willamette Valley, Oregon, of the U.S. Pacific Northwest.


Before the trees flowered, the researchers collected hundreds of small twigs containing flower buds and studied the flowers that emerged in the laboratory.


"We noticed that some of the reproductive parts were tiny," Klocko was quoted as saying by a news release from OSU. "And we wondered if the flowers would have that same feature when they opened in the plantation. And they did."


By studying genetic activity in those trees Wholesale Los Angeles Lakers Hats , the researchers showed that the undeveloped flowers could be traced to the impact of RNA interference on the LEAFY gene.


"Our goal isn't to make reproductively modified trees just to have that trait," said Klocko. "It's to prevent genetically modified or non-native trees from spreading, either to wild forests or to other plantations. This would help alleviate concerns over gene flow, whether for scientific or ethical reasons."


The finding, according to the researchers, could be applied to commercial plantations of fast-growing hybrid poplars Wholesale Los Angeles Clippers Hats , which are not genetically engineered in the United States.


Other reproductively modified trees, such as bananas, seedless oranges and many ornamentals, are commonly grown in agriculture and landscaping, but these trees have been produced using conventional forms of breeding such as hybridization and intentionally induced changes to DNA.


LEAFY has been known to be key to flower development for more than two decades. The use of RNA interference to change the expression of LEAFY is the first time genetic engineering technology has been used to produce a seedless forest tree of any kind, noted Steve Strauss Wholesale Indiana Pacers Hats , an OSU distinguished professor of forestry and a co-author on the paper.


And it is the first to show what would happen in a tree with modified LEAFY activity and grown in the field over several years,


"People have made pollen-free male plants before, including trees," said Strauss. "But the approach we used is based on detailed knowledge of the genes that direct the production of flowers in nature, and the trees are designed to be completely incapable of producing pollen or seeds. We've turned down a gene that is essential for all flowering."


While data show that the trees are identical in appearance and do not differ in growth rates from unmodified trees, the researchers are analyzing tree growth rates and other characteristics to see if slowing down LEAFY has consequences beyond flower development Wholesale Houston Rockets Hats , and are studying similar gene containment mechanisms in apple, sweetgum and eucalypt trees, as Strauss put it that "the principle applies everywhere."


"We are hopeful that this technology, or the related technology of gene editing applied to this gene, will reduce tensions and regulatory obstacles to the use of highly productive, genetically engineered or exotic trees Wholesale Golden State Warriors Hats ," said Strauss.


"There is no question that advanced genetic engineering methods, used responsibly, can increase productivity and sustainability of plantations, but the question of when and if to allow gene dispersal is a real point of contention for both scientists and society. We hope this technology helps us to get beyond this longstanding concern."

Park Geun-hye (center), former president of South Korea, leaves the Seoul Central Prosecutors' Office in Seoul on Friday. A South Korean court has ordered the arrest of Park after prosecutors sought to detain her on suspicion of bribery and abuse of powers. Photo: CFP

South Korea's ousted president Park Geun-hye was spending her first day in custody Friday after a court ordered her arrest Wholesale Detroit Pistons Hats , with her opponents crowing and her supporters crying.


The former head of state stared straight ahead, apparently trying to maintain her composure, as she was driven to the Seoul Detention Center through a barrage of flashbulbs shortly before dawn.


After a marathon hearing on Thursday a court in the capital ordered Park's arrest in connection with the corruption scandal that brought millions of people onto the streets and saw her impeached.


Prosecutors have yet to specify the formal charges against her, but have previously said she is suspected of bribery, abuse of authority, coercion Wholesale Denver Nuggets Hats , and leaking government -secrets.


"It is justifiable and necessary to arrest [Park] as key charges were justified and there is risk of evidence being destroyed," the court said.


The decision made Park, 65, the third former leader to be arrested over corruption in Asia's fourth-largest economy, where politics and big business have long been closely tied.


It is a dramatic step in the disgrace of South Korea's first woman president.


The liberal Democratic -Party, which is favorite to win the election on May 9 to choose Park's successor Wholesale Dallas Mavericks Hats , said the move showed "all are equal before the law."


"We hope today's landmark decision will provide fresh momentum in revealing the truth about the scandal of an unprecedented scale," it added.


But Park's own Liberty -Korea party, which has changed its name in an effort to distance itself from her, called the move "regrettable."


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