#1 Abril 18, 11:59 am
SAN FRANCISCO Brandon Scherff Redskins Jersey , June 3 -- A group of 14 researchers have called for their colleagues to share computer code related to their research.

The researchers, from universities across the United States and Europe, recently published a commentary in Nature Science, which has announced a pilot project to ask future authors to make their code available for review.

Members of the science community have discussed for years whether and how to share data from painstaking research and costly experiments, while some academic journals are turning their attention to another aspect of the research process: computer programming code.

Code is becoming increasingly important in research because researchers are often writing their own computer programs to interpret their data.

Ben Marwick, University of Washington (UW) associate professor of anthropology Montae Nicholson Redskins Jersey , is one of the authors of the Nature Science commentary, titled "Toward standard practices for sharing computer code and programs in neuroscience."

Making the programs behind the research accessible allows their colleagues to test the code and reproduce the computations in an experiment -- in other words, to reproduce results and solidify findings.

It's the "how the sausage is made" part of research, said Marwick. It also allows the code to be used by other researchers in new studies, making it easier for researchers to build on the work of their colleagues.

"What we're missing is the convention of sharing code or the tools for turning data into useful discoveries or information," Marwick was quoted as saying in a news release from UW.

"Researchers say it's great to have the data available in a paper -- increasingly raw data are available in supplementary files or specialized online repositories -- but the code for performing the clever analyses in between the raw data and the published figures and tables are still inaccessible."

The Nature Neuroscience pilot focuses on three elements: whether the code supporting an author's main claims is publicly accessible; whether the code functions without mistakes; and whether it produces the results cited.

Nature Publishing Group Samaje Perine Redskins Jersey , the company behind Nature Research journals, has encouraged writers to make their code available upon request since 2014.

Currently, besides Nature Neuroscience, other Nature Research journals, such as Nature Methods and Nature Biotechnology, provide for code review as part of the article evaluation process.

"This is a commitment from a high-impact journal to raise software to the status of a regular research product Fabian Moreau Redskins Jersey ," Marwick said about the Nature Neuroscience project.

"In the future, scientific disciplines will be shifting to a position where you need to share your code as well as your data. It will be easier to reproduce someone's new discovery, and incorporate their discoveries into your own work."

An Amtrak passenger train that was diverted onto a side track slammed into a parked freight train in South Carolina on Sunday, killing two crew members and injuring at least 116 others in the railroad's third fatal crash in as many months.

Amtrak Train 91, carrying nine crew members and 136 passengers, was traveling from New York to Miami when it hit the CSX Corp freight train that was stopped on a side track Ryan Anderson Redskins Jersey , or siding, at about 2:35 a.m. local time (0735 GMT).

The section of track was operated by CSX and the Amtrak train was diverted onto the siding at a switch where a padlock had been attached to steer train traffic that way, Robert Sumwalt, chairman of the U.S. National Transportation Board, told a news conference.

"Key to this investigation is learning why the switch was lined that way," he said Jonathan Allen Redskins Jersey , calling the damage to the locomotives "catastrophic." An NTSB investigation team was at the site.

Amtrak engineer Michael Kempf, 54, of Savannah, Georgia, and conductor Michael Cella, 36 Authentic Deshazor Everett Jersey , of Orange Park, Florida, were killed, Lexington County Coroner Margaret Fisher told reporters. Autopsies were underway, she said.

Two of the 116 people injured were in critical condition after the wreck, which occurred about 5 miles (8 km) southwest of the state capital Columbia.

"It's a horrible thing to see Authentic Rob Kelley Jersey , to understand what force was involved," South Carolina Governor Henry McMaster told reporters. "The first engine of the freight train was torn up, and the single engine of the passenger train is barely recognizable."

Amtrak said it was "deeply saddened" by the deaths. It said CSX owns and controls the dispatching of all trains, including the signal systems that control access to sidings and yards, Amtrak said in a statement.


Amtrak President and CEO Richard Anderson said the passenger train hit the tail end of the CSX train. That train had two locomotives and 34 empty auto racks used to transport cars, the NTSB said.

The passenger train's locomotive was left lying on its side Authentic Zach Brown Jersey , and the first car was bent and also derailed, although it remained upright, images from the scene showed.

At least four of the freight train's cars were crumpled, looking like crushed tin foil, but remained on the tracks.

The passenger train was part of Amtrak' Silver Star Service. Officials said some 5,000 gallons of fuel leaked as a result of the collision Authentic D.J. Swearinger Jersey , but that there was no threat to public safety.

U.S. President Donald Trump received regular updates on the crash while at his resort in Palm Beach, Florida. "My thoughts and prayers are with all of the victims involved in this mornings (sic) train collision in South Carolina," he tweeted. "Thank you to our incredible First Responders for the work they've done!"

McMaster said he had been told the Amtrak train was traveling at about 59 miles (95 km) per hour upon impact.

The NTSB did not release details on the speed at which the Amtrak train was traveling.

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